Technical area

Promoting the quality of the product already installed and its maintenance is the reason why we provide you with this manual with recommendations prepared by professionals.

Placement and maintenance

The tiling process requires prior knowledge for the correct use of the material. We put at your disposal a space where you can learn the recommendations for the use, installation and maintenance of our products.

Placement technique:

Recommendations for the installation of ceramic products

Adhesion, considered as the strength of the bond between the ceramic piece and the support, plays a very important role in the quality of the ceramic tile. Good adhesion should ensure a firm adhesion of new ceramic materials with low porosity, resistance to abrasion, ice, large formats, as well as their assembly or installation in industries, large commercial areas, facades, etc. , lead to the development of adhesive products.

The knowledge gained about the use of special adhesives means that the thick-layer application process (mechanical adhesion) is replaced by a thin-layer application system (chemical adhesion) which offers clear advantages, especially related to the quality of the work, both in terms of adhesion and durability.

So a suitable adhesive will be chosen depending on the surface of the laying and the type of ceramic tile.

It is very important that the right tools and utensils are used when installing the ceramic tile (toothed plate, white rubber mace, bubble level and suction cup).

We must also consider it important that the mounting bracket or base should be very clean of any remaining plaster stains, paint, etc. so that the adhesion can perform its functions over time.

You should always take into consideration the instructions of the adhesive manufacturers.

Placement technique:

Movement joints

To carry out a correct installation of the ceramic product, it is necessary to always respect the movement joints: structural, perimeter, expansion and placement.

Placement joints:

For safety to any structural movement (expansion – contraction), it is always necessary to place the separating joint, which will be left between all adjacent ceramic tiles.

Perimeter joints:

They must be continuous and their width must not be less than 8 mm. Its mission is to insulate the ceramic floor from other coated surfaces such as wall-to-floor encounters (they are hidden by placing the skirting board), pillars, doors.

Omitting perimeter joints is one of the most common causes of ceramic tile lifting.

The structural boards:

They must always be respected as detailed in the project, fixed by the specialized engineer or architect.

The partition boards:

They will allow the existing deformations caused by the thermal variations between the tiles, the layer and the support.
The large support surfaces covered with ceramic product should be subdivided into smaller ones, delimited by partition joints, whose function is to prevent the accumulation of dilations and contractions.
On soils that are to be subjected to heavy pedestrian traffic, rolling-on with heavy wheels or towing of heavy loads, specific heavy load partition joints must be used.

It is recommended not to do the placement with a spacing of less than 2/3 mm. The advantages of mounting joints are several, they help to absorb the deformations produced by the support and moderate the stresses that are generated at the bottom of the support when it is subjected to load. The accumulated stresses can lead to the lifting of the tiles. They also have an important aesthetic function, enhancing the beauty of ceramics. The joints may receive a flat finish, flush with the tiles, or concave recessed. Its field of application is that of interior and exterior coatings.

There are also low-porosity, deformable and water-repellent sealants. It is suitable for facades, pavements subjected to heavy traffic and premises with persistent presence of water. For premises frequently exposed to the presence of acids and alkalis in food or sanitary premises, it is necessary to use base sealants; two-component reactive resins such as epoxy sealants. This type of grouting material is characterised by its composition based on synthetic resins (usually epoxy resin). Its main properties are: resistance to chemicals, bacteriological resistance, very good resistance to moisture and excellent resistance to abrasion.

You should always take into consideration the instructions of the adhesive manufacturers.

The minimum spacing between the product should not be less than 2-3 mm for interiors and 3-5 mm for exteriors.

Classification of sealants according to EN138888.

MODIFIED CEMENT-BASED SEALANTS CG2

Optional ArW (high abrasion resistance and low water absorption).

SEALANTS BASED ON REACTIVE RESINS RG

Generally two-component, epoxy-based, resistant to chemicals, are completely waterproof and of high compressive strength.

Do not use joints whose composition contains micronized carbon (smoke black), they should always be avoided.

Placement technique:

Grip material

Two types of techniques have to be considered when placing the ceramic product: thick layer and thin layer.

It is important to emphasize that the installation of porcelain tile requires that the surface is completely leveled, clean of substances that impede the correct adhesion. It should always be done in a thin layer, using serrated plain, white rubber mace, bubble level and suction cup. For outdoor applications and for formats larger than 900 cm2, the double-glue technique should be used, i. e. the adhesive is applied both to the support and to the back of the workpiece.

You should always take into consideration the instructions of the adhesive manufacturers.

Thick layer
Laying in a thick layer:

It's the traditional technique. The ceramic is placed directly on the support (partition, brick, forged or sand-cement re-wrought). This technique (thick layer) is less economical and also allows to compensate for major flatness defects. Thick layer gripping material is used the traditional mortar.

Thin layer
Laying in thin layer, (with adhesives).

It is a more recent evolution technique, adapted to the current ceramic materials and the diversity of supports. The placement is usually carried out on a prior layer of regularization of the support, either grounded on the walls or mortar bases on the floors.

The advantages of this technique are clear, since it is suitable for any type of ceramic tile and compatible with any substrate. There are suitable adhesives for each type of substrate and ceramic to be placed. Its rectification time is high. They absorb the deformability of the support and develop greater adhesion. Cement adhesives, adhesive pastes and adhesives of reaction resins are used as thin-film adhesives. The following types of cement glue are considered, according to the characteristics of the ceramic product to be installed.

The adhesives are classified according to standard En 12004 and 12002 which define adhesion and deformity of the adhesives.

Cement-based adhesives C2

Modified cement-based adhesives.

Dispersion adhesives D2

Modified dispersion adhesives.

R2 reaction adhesives

Adhesives based on reaction resins.

Placement technique:

Leveling Systems

Breaking of the enamel in rectified tiles

When we talk about coatings and installation systems, we must take into account the following considerations :

  • Materials Absorption group BIII, absorption greater than 10 %.
  • More fragile.
  • Rectified, they have a microbeel or minimal bevel.

The problem is that the edge of these parts is very delicate and any small pressure can cause the edge to break.

Traditional system

In these systems, the wedges are in contact with the ceramic, and when pressure is applied, scantlings can be produced. This is because at the moment of squeezing the wedge, we generate a pressure causing the splitter to be less than 90◦ tilting the splitter and exerting pressure on the bezel.

Example of inclined divider exerting pressure on the bezel, parts leveling system, and example of traditional placement.

What solution have the manufacturers of levelling systems found to solve this sector-wide problem?

Manufacturers of levelling systems have designed modifications for this type of product.

Protector leveling systems

Protector leveling systems

The protector is placed under the wedge to achieve a perfect finish of the flooring or tiling, eliminating friction in the force between the wedge, the divider and the ceramic.

Specially designed to protect tiles, especially in the case of delicate and thin ceramics.

USE OF THE PROTECTOR

Quality Department Grupo Industrial Pamesa.

Usage:

Due to the low porosity of porcelain stoneware, it is practically impossible that it can be stained.
However, some products that are energetic dyes may spill or accidentally come into contact with the surface of the product; if we leave this substance on the surface for some time it may stain so we advise you to clean it as soon as possible.
Once the laying and grouting operations have been completed, the surface of the ceramic material usually presents film-like cement residues or small accumulations. In most cases, cleaning with a dilute acid solution is sufficient to remove such residues.

As a general rule, the following precautions should always be taken into account:

*Acid cleaning should never be carried out on the newly installed ceramic product; the acid reacts with the unforged cement, which may damage the joints or deposit insoluble compounds on the surface.

*It is advisable to impregnate the surface with clean water prior to any chemical treatment (sealing joints).

*Normal maintenance consists of regular cleaning by washing with water and a diluted solution of ammonia detergent.

*With regard to the extraordinary cleaning of stains and encrustations that penetrate the surface and cannot be removed by normal cleaning operations, it is advisable to check its effect on the surface of an unplaced part before attempting to remove a stain with a vigorous procedure. They must prevent chemical degradation that may further deteriorate the condition of the product.

*Metal spatulas or abrasive scraps should not be used.

*After installation it will be necessary to give adequate protection to the pavement by: cardboard with sawdust layer or other product that protects it from possible damage that may cause subsequent work.

To prevent breakage and any other unwanted cutting finish, it is advisable to use the right tools for cutting and drilling porcelain stoneware.

For straight cuts manual cutting machine with Widia Rodel, also water-cooled diamond disc machine and/or low-power radial machine equipped with a continuous diamond disc (not segmented).

To drill porcelain stoneware should be used diamond drill periodically should be cooled with water the drilling area, we will avoid increasing the temperature and melting of the drill

Follow the manufacturer's instructions.

Placement tips:

Placement Brick bond

Regular placement
to half piece
(NOT ADVISABLE)

We offer demo videos to simplify and make the tiling process accessible.
It is recommended to follow the directions of the manufacturers so that everything works properly.

Cleaning and maintenance

The following table details the most suitable cleaning products for each type of stain. In order to preserve the properties and beauty of porcelain stoneware/polished and semi-polished, it is necessary to place mats/pads at the entrances to the paved areas; the mat retains minerals that may be adhered to the sole of the shoe.

Type of stain Cleaning agent
Cement and limestone residues Cleaning products based on decoupling acids
Oxide deposits Descaling
Oils

Universal solvent, turmeric, acetone, alcohol

Fats Ammonia, universal solvent, turmeric, acetone, alcohol

Tar or bitumen

Universal solvent, turmeric, acetone, alcohol
Painting Universal solvent, turmeric, acetone, alcohol

Rubber or rubber

Universal solvent, turmeric, acetone, alcohol

Beer or wine

Ammonia, descaling
Iodine Diluted bleach
Blood Diluted bleach

Coffee, tea or juice

Universal solvent, turmeric, acetone, alcohol

Ink or mercromine

Universal solvent, turmeric, acetone, alcohol

Nicotine

Universal solvent, turmeric, acetone, alcohol, hydrogen peroxide, diluted bleach

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